Self-reference is a special case of indexicality that presents its own set of puzzles Kamp, Anand , and also bears connections to expressive content and evidentials.
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Expressives like 'damn' and 'bastard' convey important affective content in a special way that differs from the presentation of descriptive content Potts. Evidential markers indicate the source or nature of the evidence for the information in a sentence in a way that is closely tied to self-ascription McCready, Murray. In this workshop we explore a variety of topics and the connections between them, with presentations and discussion by leading contributors to this field. In this talk we will begin by introducing the problems addressed in this workshop, as laid out in the general workshop description above.
This is true in particular when the thoughts that are being communicated between speaker and addressee involve nested attitude attributions — as when the speaker thinks, and ventures to say to the addressee, that she thinks that he does not like her.
The talk will present the forms of the representations, discuss the ways in which these representations can be converted into words and in which those words can in their turn be reconverted into mental representations by the recipient, with special attention to the nested embeddings mentioned above. Reading: Hans Kamp Wednesday, June Remembering, Imagining, and De Se, Revisited Pranav Anand University of California at Santa Cruz The structure of imagistic attitudes like memory and imagination has received a great deal of attention in philosophy.
For example, Berkeley and Nagel asked whether there are limits to our imaginative capacities and Williams asked if such imagistic experiences have an explicit 'perspective' or 'self' that orients the perception or pseudo-perception. A linguistic question that arises is whether such perspectival information affects the truth conditions of ascriptions of memory and imagination. Vendler and Higginbotham explicitly say yes, focusing on examples with and without PRO, such as Vendler's 'I imagined swimming in the ocean' and 'I imagined myself swimming in the ocean'.
In this talk, I will argue that whatever perspectival distinctions we may wish to make in imagistic attitudes, they do not map cleanly onto obligatorily de se attitudes. Rather, I will argue that perspective arises either from the context-dependent nature of the expressions in question or constraints that imagistic experiences themselves bring to the table. In this talk I discuss the indexical properties of evidential markers and how they compare to other indexicals. Based on this comparison, I argue that there are two kinds of indexical expressions found in natural language: pure indexicals and anaphoric indexicals.
Pure indexicals, after Kaplan , are exemplified by first person pronouns in English and Cheyenne Algonquian: Montana. Anaphoric indexicals are exemplified by the reportative evidential in Cheyenne, roughly similar to the evidential adverb reportedly in English. Like the first person pronouns, both the Cheyenne reportative and English reportedly are anchored to the speaker in declarative sentences, discourse initially and discourse internally.
For all of them, a change in the speaker affects the content of the sentence. However, in questions, the Cheyenne reportative and English reportedly are anchored to the addressee, unlike the first person pronouns. Examples such as evidentials in questions show that despite the strong similarities between first person pronouns and evidentials, they cannot be represented in exactly the same way. At the same time, their strong overlap must be accounted for. This talk will also present an analysis of these two different kinds of indexicals where pure indexicals are analyzed a la Kaplan as referring to the context of utterance, represented by the speech event.
The first person pronoun, for example, refers to the agent of the speech event.
Dhaka University Library Online catalog › Details for: Tense, aspect, and indexicality
Anaphoric indexicals are analyzed as referring to the currently topical event. By default, in unembedded, declarative cases, the currently topical event is the speech event, the agent of which is the speaker. However, the topical event can change, depending on particular constructions in particular languages, yielding a restricted set of other individuals that the anaphoric indexicals can refer to. A formalization of this analysis is given in an update semantics with sequence based anaphora. This analysis accounts for the fact that by default anaphoric indexicals and pure indexicals refer to the same individuals.
However, in questions or embedded cases, when the topical event changes, they refer to different individuals.
In addition, this analysis accounts for the fact that Cheyenne reportatives are limited to secondhand reports. Readings: Murray, Sarah. Evidentials and Questions in Cheyenne. In Suzi Lima ed. Optional Readings: Bittner, Maria.
To appear. Perspectival discourse referents for indexicals. Proceedings of SULA 7. McCready, Eric. Context shifting in questions and elsewhere. Friday, June The latent affective meaning of demonstratives Eric Acton Stanford Christopher Potts Stanford Lakoff argues that affective demonstratives in English are markers of solidarity and shared sentiment, and that they can in turn be used to foster, reinforce, or tacitly insist upon a sense of common ground between a speaker and her audience.
We will present quantitative corpus evidence that these affective uses are prevalent and robust, not only in English, but also in German and Japanese, and that similar effects are found with personal pronouns. The question then arises of where these affective, social meanings come from.
Tense, aspect, and indexicality / James Higginbotham.
Do they represent a semantic ambiguity, or can they be derived pragmatically? James Higginbotham's work on tense, aspect, and indexicality explore the principles governing demonstrative, temporal, and indexical expressions in natural language and present new ideas in the semantics of sentence structure.
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Material type: Book Series: Oxford studies in theoretical linguistics : ISBN: ebook :. Subject s : Grammar, Comparative and general -- Aspect Indexicals Semantics Grammar, Comparative and general -- Tense Semantics Philosophy Language and languages -- Philosophy Online resources: Oxford scholarship online Summary: James Higginbotham's work on tense, aspect, and indexicality explore the principles governing demonstrative, temporal, and indexical expressions in natural language and present new ideas in the semantics of sentence structure.